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Vitamins

Questions

A: vitamin A
B: vitamin B12
C: vitamin C
D: vitamin D
E: vitamin E

Select, from A to E, which vitamin applies to the following statements.

1. Autoimmune gastritis results in malabsorption of this vitamin

2. Exists in vegetable oils

3. Increases intestinal absorption of calcium

4. Increases absorption of iron from plant sources

5. Synthesised in skin during exposure to sunlight.
 

 

 

All information is essential knowledge for pharmacists and the prereg exam, however words highlighted in red are what I see as information that is compulsory to know, if you don't know these by the time of the exam you will definitely fail!

Vitamin A (Retinol)

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Involved in regeneration of membranes and formation of light-sensitive substances in the eye

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Contra-indications: Pregnancy (tetrarogenic)

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Foods: Diary products, egg, yolks, liver, oily fish, broccoli, carrots, tomatoes, cod-liver oil

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Defienciency associated with occular defects (particularly xerophthalmia) and an increased susceptability to infections.

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Overdose: may cause rough skin, dry hair, enlarged liver, and raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate and raised serum calcium and serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations.

Vitamin B1 (thiamine)

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Involved in the breakdown of carbohydrates and nerve cell function

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Foods: Yeast, liver, cereals, milk, eggs

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavine)

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Involved in oxidation processes, including respiration

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Foods:yeast, liver, milk, eggs, cereals

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)

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Involved in protein metabolism

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Foods: wholemeal flour, fish, eggs

Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin)

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Involved in blood production

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eggs, liver, meat, fish

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Vegetarians may take yeast extracts as an alternative source for vitamin B12

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Megaloblastic anaemias result from a lack of vitamin B12 or folate

Nicotinic Acid (part of the B comlex)

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involved in enzyme systems

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Foods: Wholemeal flour, meat, fish

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Vitamin C deficiency causes scurvy (symptoms of scurcy, gingival swelling and bleeding margins as wells as petechiae on the skin, and signs of leukaemia). Less profound manifestations of vitamin C may commonly occur in the elderly.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

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Aids iron absorption (e.g Vitamin C is included in ferrograd C to aid absorption).

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Foods: Citrus fruits, vegetables (green), berries, oranges

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Is thought to aid the immune system in prevention of a cold

Vitamin D

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Involved in calcium metabolism and bone formation (Tip to help remember: the D in Calcichew D3 is vitamin D used to aid calcium absorbtion)

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Foods: Fish liver oil, animal fats, dairy produce

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Vitamin D is synthesised in the skin during exposure to sunlight. People that are housebound and don't get enough sunlight may suffer from vitamin D deficiency

Vitamin E

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has antioxidant properties, may be important for normal neurological function

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Foods: Vegetables, Nuts

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Is present in vegetable oils

Vitamin K

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Involved in blood coagulating factors. Is also necessary for production of proteins for the normal calcification of bone.

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Warfarin is vitamin K antagonist. Therefore Vitamin K may decrease the effectiveness of warfarin.

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Foods: Green vegetables, liver

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Fat soluble, menadiol sodium phosphate is a water-soluble preperation of vitamin K, used for defiency in malabsorbtion syndromes.

 

 

 

 
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